Selecting the best language for an app development project is a critical business decision that requires in-depth technical considerations and expertise. The programming language you choose can significantly impact your project’s success, costs, development speed, and long-term maintainability.

Statistically speaking, here are the top ten best app development languages as of 2023:

app development languages

Some of these languages are primarily used in commercial website development, while others are employed in custom mobile application development. Still, there are those that can be utilized for various domains, such as .NET, which is suitable for building software products across different platforms. So what’s the best language for app development?

At Forbytes, we are frequently asked about the best language for mobile app development. Popular programming languages are commonly used in various situations, but the secret to a successful and reliable solution lies in a well-engineered combination of common technologies.

This article serves as a comprehensive guide to help you make an informed choice, considering various factors and the strengths and weaknesses of popular programming languages commonly used in app development. However, if you have a software idea but are unsure about the best programming language for your objectives, you can contact us for individualized IT consulting.

Introduction: The Importance of Programming Language Selection

Choosing between the best app development languages is akin to laying the foundation of a building. The choice you make can either set you on a path to success or lead to unnecessary challenges. Before delving into the specifics, let’s understand why this decision is crucial.

Why language selection matters

  • Efficiency. The right language can streamline development, reducing time and effort.
  • Compatibility. Some languages are better suited for specific platforms.
  • Scalability. Long-term success often hinges on the language’s scalability.
  • Developer expertise. Your team’s familiarity with a language is essential.
  • Community support. Widespread use fosters a robust developer community.

Three major factors to consider

When selecting a programming language for your app development project, consider the following factors:

1. Project requirements

  • Functionality. What features and capabilities do you need?
  • Performance. Are speed and efficiency crucial for your app?
  • Platform. Is your app intended for a specific operating system or multiple platforms?
  • Integration. Does your app need to connect with other systems or APIs?

2. Developer expertise

  • Team skills. What languages are your developers proficient in? (or what dedicated app programming teams are available for hire?)
  • Learning curve. Are you willing to invest time in learning a new language if it opens up a world of tech opportunities?
  • Hiring availability. Is there a pool of experienced developers for the chosen language?

3. Platform selection

Decide between cross-platform development, which offers code reuse across multiple platforms, or native development, which provides optimized performance. That may become your primary filter, limiting you to building your application using native a app development language. However, certain combinations of backend operations, such as PHP development, may still be required.

Overview of Commonly Used Programming Languages

Before diving into language-specific details, let’s get an overview of some commonly used programming languages in app development:

  1. JavaScript. Widely used for web and mobile app development.
  2. Java. Dominates Android app development.
  3. Swift. The primary language for iOS app development.
  4. Python. Known for its versatility and ease of use.
  5. Kotlin. Gaining popularity as an alternative to Java for Android.
  6. PHP. Renowned for web application development and server-side scripting.
  7. Ruby. Esteemed for its elegant syntax and web application development.


JavaScript, a front-end web development linchpin, is often regarded the best app development language. It breathes dynamism into e-commerce and fintech web apps, enhancing user experiences and aesthetics. Its robust security features combat fraud and fortify code.

When paired with ReactJS, it fosters large-scale e-commerce, banking, and fintech app development, ensuring both security and speed. This places your high-capacity app at the forefront of digital excellence, while NodeJS adeptly handles backend operations.


Python, a versatile app development language, powers renowned platforms like Reddit and Uber. Its cross-platform capabilities ensure smooth operation across various systems and devices. Python’s support for multi-threading enhances concurrent request management and overall performance. Its clean and user-friendly syntax is beginner-friendly, making it an excellent choice for newcomers to programming. The robust community support provides a wealth of resources for addressing inquiries during the app development process.


Despite its reputation as one of the best mobile app development languages, Java extends its influence beyond the mobile banking app development and dynamic fintech industry. Its lightweight and flexible nature makes it an ideal choice for web applications in various domains. With a history spanning over a quarter of a century, Java serves as a foundational technology in numerous sectors, leveraging its robust security features and efficient handling of extensive datasets. Java’s ‘write once, run anywhere’ architecture is a pivotal factor in its enduring success, enabling seamless operation across diverse platforms. In industries marked by diverse hardware and operating systems, this portability is of paramount significance.


PHP is a versatile scripting language widely employed in web development, known for its ability to create dynamic and interactive web pages. It boasts an extensive range of frameworks and libraries, empowering developers to build a diverse array of web applications. PHP enables the creation of secure and feature-rich web applications for the financial technology sector. Its user-friendly nature and compatibility with various databases make it a preferred choice among web developers worldwide.


Swift, conceived within the Apple ecosystem, is a multi-paradigm, compiled programming language celebrated for its ease of learning and usage, as well as its robust security. It’s considered the best app development language that thrives in the iOS realm, delivering exceptional performance and a thriving developer community, ensuring a bright future for app development on Apple platforms. Its open-source nature fosters innovation and collaboration among developers, further enhancing its capabilities.


Kotlin is among the mobile development languages for Android app development. It offers a rich array of technical capabilities. With a substantial talent pool, it provides ample opportunities for knowledge expansion. Its seamless integration with Java enhances the efficiency of Android application code development, enabling easy interoperability between the two languages. The inclusion of a lazy loading feature optimizes performance by selectively loading necessary UI components. Moreover, Kotlin’s use of data classes simplifies coding, reducing verbosity while retaining functionality.


Ruby is an object-oriented, dynamic, and reflective programming language with versatile applications. Developers can leverage RubyMotion, equipped with its unique compiler, to craft native apps for both iOS and Android, ensuring cross-platform compatibility. Furthermore, the Ruby on Rails framework, built on Ruby’s foundation, serves as a popular choice for creating applications compatible with Android and iOS, offering developers an efficient toolset for mobile app development.

Cross-Platform vs. Native Development

The choice between cross-platform and native development can significantly impact your project. Here are some key considerations:

Cross-platform development

Hybrid apps, as their name suggests, are engineered to function seamlessly on both iOS and Android operating systems, ensuring a glitch-free user experience. The primary languages employed for crafting these apps encompass HTML, JavaScript, ReactJS, Python, and more. Since these apps are developed to be cross-platform, the code must be written on a framework with an engine capable of translating code snippets into native elements tailored to the specific OS.

best app development language

Native development

A native app is purpose-built for a single platform, like Android or iOS, tapping into the distinctive features and capabilities of that OS. These apps are developed using app development languages that are platform-specific, leveraging the unique coding of the operating system. This approach empowers native apps to unlock the device’s full potential, seamlessly merging high-end, optimized technology with emerging innovations such as cloud-based mobile app development, web app comparisons, and GPS integration. The selection of native app development languages is dictated by the chosen platform.

  • Android (Java/Kotlin). Native Android applications predominantly utilize Java and Kotlin. Kotlin, recognized for its brevity and clarity, has seen increasing adoption in recent years.
  • iOS (Swift/Objective-C). iOS native apps are frequently crafted with Swift, the contemporary language of choice. However, Objective-C persists in managing legacy applications.

mobile app development languages

Programming Language Strengths and Weaknesses

Now, let’s delve into the strengths and weaknesses of some popular programming languages for app development:

JavaScript pros and cons

JavaScript’s ubiquity in web and mobile app development, coupled with its rich library ecosystem, makes it an excellent choice for hybrid app development. However, it may exhibit slower performance compared to native languages, and potential compatibility issues due to multiple libraries and frameworks need consideration.


  • Ubiquitous. Used for web and mobile app development.
  • Vast ecosystem. Abundance of libraries and frameworks.
  • Cross-platform. Ideal for hybrid app development.


  • Performance. Can be slower compared to native languages.
  • Fragmentation. Multiple libraries and frameworks may lead to compatibility issues.

Java pros and cons

Java’s structured ecosystem equips developers with diverse tools and effortless third-party integrations, expediting application development. With robust built-in security features like runtime restrictions and a comprehensive security manager, Java ensures code security. Its reliable, user-friendly security APIs effectively detect and isolate suspicious code and virtual machines, making it the preferred choice for crafting trading algorithms in quantitative finance and banking applications.


  • Dominant on Android. Ideal for Android app development.
  • Stability. Mature language with a strong ecosystem.
  • Performance. Native apps developed in Java perform well.


  • Learning curve. Can be challenging for beginners.
  • Verbosity. Requires more code compared to modern languages.

Swift pros and cons

Swift, a top choice for iOS app development, prioritizes performance, code clarity, and developer-friendly features. However, its focus on native iOS applications means it’s not suitable for cross-platform projects.


  • Native iOS. The primary language for iOS app development.
  • Performance. Swift is known for its speed.
  • Safety. A strong type system reduces runtime errors.


  • Limited to iOS. Only applicable to iOS development.
  • Smaller community. Fewer resources and third-party libraries.

Python pros and cons

Python’s versatility and readability, coupled with a rich library ecosystem, make it an excellent choice for data analysis, scientific research, web development, and automation. However, it may not be the best option for high-performance applications.


  • Versatility. Used in web development, data science, and more.
  • Readability. Easy-to-understand syntax.
  • Rich ecosystem. Abundant libraries and frameworks.


  • Performance. Slower than languages like C++.
  • Global Interpreter Lock (GIL). Limits multi-threading capabilities.

Kotlin pros and cons

Kotlin, developed as a Java alternative, has become the best language for mobile app development when it comes to Android app development. It offers a streamlined and straightforward coding experience. Its syntax closely mirrors Java, making it an easy transition for Java developers, and it has garnered support from Google.


  • Android-friendly. Gaining popularity as an alternative to Java.
  • Interoperability. Seamless integration with Java.
  • Concise. Requires less code compared to Java.


  • Limited to Android. Primarily used for Android development.
  • Smaller community. Smaller developer base compared to Java.

PHP pros and cons

PHP excels, offering a diverse array of tools and frameworks to streamline the creation of web applications, particularly in back-end development. While its primary strength lies in web development, PHP’s versatile nature allows it to find applications in other domains, including fintech and Machine Learning. However, its adaptability allows it to play a supporting role in various applications, often in conjunction with other specialized languages.


  • Web versatility. One of the app development languages that supports a wide spectrum of web applications, from simple websites to complex content management systems and thriving e-commerce platforms.
  • Database integration. Seamless database integration enhances PHP’s capability for server-side processing and robust database interactions.
  • Rich ecosystem. PHP offers an extensive range of frameworks and libraries, equipping developers with essential tools for efficient web development.


  • Limited application scope. PHP’s primary focus on web development may not suit non-web-based applications or broader app development.
  • Performance considerations. While suitable for web development, PHP may not match the performance of languages optimized for specific use cases.

Ruby pros and cons

Ruby shines as a versatile programming language renowned for its readable and elegant syntax. While its heart lies in web development, Ruby’s adaptability extends its influence into diverse fields, including e-commerce, entertainment, and data science analytics. Its flexibility allows it to effectively collaborate with specialized languages in various application development scenarios.


  • Readable syntax. Ruby’s human-friendly syntax facilitates efficient and expressive code writing.
  • Rich ecosystem. A wealth of gems and libraries simplify the development of various web applications.
  • Web development. Ruby on Rails, a potent framework, streamlines web application development.


  • Limited application scope. Ruby may not be the best choice for non-web applications.
  • Performance considerations. Ruby’s expressiveness may impact its performance compared to languages optimized for specific use cases.
  • Learning curve. A smaller developer community and a steeper learning curve may necessitate extra effort and resources to attain proficiency in Ruby.

mobile development languages

The Role of Frameworks in App Development

The choice of framework can significantly enhance development efficiency and align with your selection of the best language for mobile app development based on project requirements. It offers a ready-made foundation to streamline your development process. Here are some notable frameworks associated with the discussed languages:

  • React Native. A JavaScript framework for cross-platform mobile app development.
  • Angular. A JavaScript framework tailored for web application construction.
  • Spring Boot. A Java framework designed for web applications and microservices.
  • Express.js. A minimalist web application framework for Node.js (JavaScript).
  • .NET and Xamarin. .NET is a versatile framework that supports various programming languages and is highly compatible with C#. Xamarin, a part of the .NET ecosystem, is perfect for developing cross-platform mobile applications.
  • Ruby on Rails. A robust Ruby framework for efficient web application development.
  • Node.js. Ideal for building scalable network applications and real-time web apps, leveraging JavaScript for both server-side and client-side scripts. You can learn more about this framework from this article about Node.js.

mobile app programming language

Real-World Applications of Mentioned Languages

JavaScript project examples

  • Web development. This app development language powers interactive sites like Google Maps, Facebook, and Netflix. It is also the core of Node.js, used by Mozilla, Netflix, PayPal, LinkedIn, and Uber for various applications.
  • Mobile apps. Used in apps like WhatsApp, Instagram, and Airbnb via React Native and Flutter.

Java project examples

  • Android apps. Dominates Android app development with Google Maps, YouTube, and Spotify.
  • Enterprise software. Key in CRM and ERP systems like Salesforce and SAP.

Swift project examples

  • iOS apps. Primary app development language for TikTok, Amazon, and Twitter apps.
  • Mac apps. Used in apps like Safari, Pages, and Numbers.

Python project examples

  • Machine learning & AI. Employs popular frameworks like TensorFlow and PyTorch.
  • Data science. Widely used for data analysis with libraries like NumPy and Pandas.
  • Web development. Django and Flask frameworks power sites like Instagram and Pinterest.

Kotlin project examples

  • Android apps. Gaining ground with apps like Google Pay, JetBrains, and Slack.
  • Server-side development. Used in platforms like Netflix and Airbnb through Spring Boot and Ktor.

Ruby project examples

  • Web development. Ruby is pivotal in building websites, including Airbnb and GitHub.
  • E-commerce. It fuels platforms like Etsy, a prominent online marketplace.

PHP project examples

  • Content management. PHP drives systems like WordPress and Joomla.
  • E-commerce solutions. It empowers WooCommerce and other major online shopping platforms.

Summarized Decision Factors

As you finish your mobile app programming language selection, it’s essential to stay updated with current industry trends, such as the growing significance of artificial intelligence (AI) in various sectors. This innovation can provide a substantial advantage when integrated into your application. To guide your decision, consider these key factors:

  • Project requirements. Ensure the chosen language aligns with your specific project needs and platform compatibility.
  • Developer expertise. Evaluate the availability of developers skilled in the chosen language.
  • Cross-platform vs. native. Determine whether cross-platform or native development best suits your project’s objectives.
  • Language strengths and weaknesses. Weigh the pros and cons of popular languages to find the best fit for your project.
  • Role of frameworks. Explore how frameworks can expedite and simplify your development process.
  • Real-world use cases and trends. Keep a finger on the pulse of real-world applications and emerging industry trends to stay competitive.
  • Developer community. Consider the support and resources provided by the language’s developer community.
  • Compatibility with emerging technologies. Ensure the language can accommodate cutting-edge technologies like AI.
  • Long-term scalability. Assess whether the language is suitable for your project’s sustained growth.

If you’re ready to explore your best app development language, don’t hesitate to reach out to Forbytes for expert consulting and .NET, NodeJS, and React programming services.

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